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Senate square

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Senate square in Helsinki, the architect is the total complex with the surrounding architectural structures. From 1812 to Helsingfors (Helsinki) was given the status of the capital of the Principality Finnish.

Appearance a typical small Finnish town did not meet the high status, and it was decided to Refine it. To work on the image of Helsinki was invited Carl Ludwig Engel, who moved from revel (Tallinn) to St. Petersburg in search of work. The views of the architect clearly influenced by the classicism architecture of the then capital of the Empire.

Ludwig Engel masterfully used the natural terrain and harmoniously entered all the buildings in the space around the large hill. On its top was built the Cathedral. The construction of the temple took 22 years - from 1830 to 1852. The architect was not destined to see his project completed as he died in 1840. The construction was completed by Ernst Lohrmann.

The story goes that in 1842, the city celebrated the bicentennial anniversary of the Alexander University, and in order to accommodate all invited to the ceremony guests of honor, opened the Church is under construction since University hall was too tight.

The consecration and opening of the Church was held in February 1852. The Cathedral was consecrated by St. Nicholas of Myra. The temple, at the behest of the autocrat, was embellished with zinc sculptures of the 12 apostles. Inside there are statues of the founder of Lutheranism Martin Luther, the humanist Philip Melanchthon and the first translator of the Bible into Finnish Bishop Mikael Agricola. In 1917, when Finland gained independence, the Cathedral became known as Suurkirkko (big Church). The status of the Cathedral received in 1959 with the Foundation of the Helsinki diocese.

On the square is the monument to Alexander II. This Finns are respectful Emperor: during his reign in Finland are respected autonomy, introduced its own currency, the Finnish language has a state status.

If you stand with your back to the Cathedral, on the left you can see the former building of the Senate, from which the area got its name, also designed by Engel. Currently it houses the Council of State - the government of Finland.

Opposite the government buildings is a building of the University, which is almost its twin. The history of the University of Helsinki begins with the conversion of the gymnasium of Turku, the Royal Academy. After the fire, and natural disasters in 1827, the Academy was transferred to Helsinki and was located partially in the Senate building, partly in temporary buildings. In 1832, the school has moved to a new building, and in 1845 was completed the construction of the library.

The library had 6000 volumes collected from Senate meeting. The collection was enriched by donations of patrons and gifts. Electrification of the building in 1893, contributed to the extension of operation and the opening of an additional hall with reference books have attracted readers. In 1906 was built the rotunda or the book tower, because all the literature simply does not fit. In 50-ies of the 20th century was built a huge underground library, in which is placed the microfilm and print editions. University library of Helsinki is renamed into National library of Finland and is open to visitors. Inside you can see the domed room, murals, 1881, columns, and Rotunda.

Furthest from the Cathedral are the houses of the rich citizens of the 18th century. Interest house söderholm is currently working as a Museum of the life of merchants and the place of mobile expositions.