/ / The fortress of Carcassonne: photo description (Cite de Carcassonne)

The fortress of Carcassonne: photo description (Cite de Carcassonne)

The citadel of Carcassonne is a medieval architectural ensemble, located in the French town of the same name, Department of Aude, region Languedoc-Roussillon. The fortress stands on a hill on the right Bank of the river Aude, South-East of the city.

The first settlement and a fortified building on this spot appeared in the Gallo-Roman era, in the III century BC. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Carcassonne was captured by the Visigoths, but in the year 725, the citadel was captured by the Saracens.

At the end of the VIII century there was a legend about Kargasokskiy lady explaining why this name of the fortress. According to this legend, the army of Charlemagne five years besieged the city defence which was engaged in the Lady Frame, widow of the Saracen ruler. Deprived of almost all supplies of food, the woman went to the trick - she fed the last pig, the last grain and threw her from the tower of the besiegers. The army of Charlemagne, realizing that the inhabitants of the fortress, there's plenty of food, and a siege could drag on for another few years, decided to lift the siege. Delighted, the lady in the Frame were ordered to ring all the bells to spread a joyful thing. The people of Charlemagne exclaimed: "Carcas sonne" - "Frame rings", hence the name of the city. The bust of the Savior of the city - ladies Frame can be seen on one of the pillars of the bridge under Normanskij gate. However, despite the heroism ladies Frame, Carcassonne soon became part of the Frankish Kingdom.

In XI-XIII centuries in Languedoc, spread of the Christian religious movement of the Cathars. Popes did not recognize him, and in 1209 by order of Pope innocent III was the first crusade in Christian lands - the Albigensian crusade, which lasted until 1229. The siege of the fortress of Carcassonne lasted exactly two weeks from 1 to 15 August of 1209 when the city left without water, decided to surrender.

It is worth noting that in Carcassonne was the first ecclesiastical trial of heretics, marked the beginning of the Holy Inquisition. It happened in 1215, in the midst of the Albigensian campaign. During this campaign also died out all Through the dynasty ruling the Languedoc. In 1241, the Languedoc became part of the French Kingdom, but the Cathar heresy had not been eradicated completely. In 1280 the French king Philippe the Bold commands to build in Carcassonne the Tower of the Inquisition, in an underground prison which tortured heretics. Now it houses the Museum of the Inquisition.

Carcassonne has long served as an important Outpost on the border of France and the crown of Aragon. In 1248 king Louis IX of France a Saint was allowed to start in Carcassonne "lower city", which has quickly grown to become a major industrial center. Then was built the second row of the fortress wall, the distance between the two walls was approximately equal to the length of the arrow's flight. The length of the wall is three kilometers, rises above the walls 52 of the tower.

During the hundred years war - namely, in 1355 - Carcassonne withstood siege by the English troops led by Edward the Black Prince. However, when on 7 November 1659 was signed the Treaty of the Pyrenees between France and Spain, rolled away to the South of the border between these two powers, Carcassonne lost its strategic importance. He still remained an important economic center of the country in the field of the textile industry, but soon the castle was abandoned.

In 1849 the French government wanted to demolish the fortress, which consisted of almost 2000 years. Local residents opposed this, they were supported by the famous French writer prosper mérimée. The voice of the people was heard, and in 1853, with the support of the French authorities began restoration work, led by the famous restorer eugène violle-Le-Duc. Finally, the castle was restored in the late nineteenth century.

Since 1997, the citadel of Carcassonne is a UNESCO world heritage site. It belongs to the state and is a historical monument of France. The fortress is an outstanding castle dynasty Tranquila (1130) and Basilica of St. Nazaire, combining styles, and Romanesque and Gothic architecture. This Church until 1801 he served the Cathedral of Carcassonne.

July 14 of each year, in Carcassonne, is a Grand salute to mark the storming of the Bastille. Also in this town, right in the castle, concerts of popular artists, including Alice Cooper, Marilyn Manson and others. In Carcassonne also has starred in many Hollywood films, including "Joan of Arc" by Luc Besson.