/ / The citadel of Calais: photo description (Citadelle de Calais)

The citadel of Calais: photo description (Citadelle de Calais)

During the construction of the citadel at Calais was demolished a few houses, the Church of St. Nicholas and the castle, built in the first half of the XIII century. In 1558 Calais, not without armed involvement of the Duke françois de guise, became part of France, and the construction of a mighty citadel became a matter of national importance. King Francis the First gave the order for its construction to keep the important sea port of Calais, which interested the neighbors of France - England and the Netherlands.

The citadel was built using the most modern for that time methods of building fortifications. On the project of the citadel worked for the architect Jean Arrar, who already had experience in the construction of FORTS, to help him were invited from the Italian architect by the name of Castriota.

However, despite all these efforts, the citadel was captured at the end of the XVI century during the war between France and Spain. The city for a couple of years "fell" from the French crown and was looted. In 1598 Calais was returned to France.

In the XVII century the citadel of Calais could be part of the plans of cardinal Richelieu, who wanted to turn into a fortress of the entire city. The implementation of this plan began but was not completed: Richelieu was able to build only the Arsenal building and three underground tunnels. In the same century the citadel was fortified by the Marquis de Vauban, military architect.

During the great French revolution, the citadel wanted to make out, but apparently refused these intentions. In the early nineteenth century, the Creator of the optical Telegraph, Claude chappe installed in the upper part of the citadel and first tested it. In addition, in the XIX century citadel is contained within its walls the warehouses of ammunition, forage and provisions, stables and barracks.

At the beginning of the Second world war, the internal construction of the citadel was blown up, and the Fort is occupied by German troops. Also, the citadel became a place of executions of members of the Resistance movement. Now on its territory there is a stadium, and the citadel survived two towers, fragments of walls and three gates.