/ / Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore: photo description (Duomo)

Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore: photo description (Duomo)

The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore rises in the heart of the ancient city. Carved marble Cathedral is crowned by a huge dome of a rusty-red color. In Italy its size of the Florentine Cathedral is second only to the Cathedral.Peter's in Rome.

By the end of the XIII century thanks to the work of the Florentine wool merchants and bankers, the city became rich and a small Cathedral of Santa Reparata does not already reflect the new status of the city. Influential merchants of Florence decided to build a new Cathedral and was invited to draft the architect Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. Cambia has used in its draft elements of both Norman and Gothic architecture.

The first was built with a wide Central nave, side aisles and an octagonal drum in the Eastern part of the Cathedral. But in 1310, the works were suspended because of the death of di Cambio. Construction resumed only in 1330-ies, when for the erection of the bell tower were invited Giotto di Bondone. He died in 1337, and has not completed the construction of the bell tower, known in history under the name of Giotto's Campanile. With a height of 84 meters, it is square and all sides decorated with hexagonal and diamond-shaped medallions of Andrea Pisano, Luca della Robbia, Alberto Arnoldi and other masters of this school, as well as niches with statues and blind niches. Campanello completed only to 1359.

Somewhat later the construction resumed and the remaining parts of the building. The finishing touches to the work on the nave and the altar part are to 1420, when the top layer of a huge octagonal drum of green and white marble was finally completed.

When designing the dome, crowning the octagon, have a technical problem, as the authorities did not want to pay for the construction of high forests. After heated debates, was invited to the great sculptor, architect and goldsmith of the Renaissance, Filippo Brunelleschi, who promised to do the dome construction without costly scaffolding. The master did not disclose details of its plan until its complete realization..

Work on the construction of the dome began in 1420. Brunelleschi designed the dome (out put "in the tree" of brick), having an arched frame consisting of eight corner arcs with a slope of 60 degrees and a horizontal connecting bridges. The dome is lined with brick-red tiles contrasting with the green, red and white marble walls. All this cumbersome design of a dome with a diameter of about 43 meters ended in a tiny white-marble rotunda of the lantern with a spire and a copper ball (after 1446).

After Brunelleschi's magnificent dome was persuaded to stay and lead the construction to its full completion, and by the time of his death in 1446, the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore was almost completed.

In 1587 was destroyed facade of the Cathedral, whose construction was initiated on the project of Arnolfo di Cambio, but was never completed. From this moment on, for nearly three centuries have proposed various projects and competitions on the implementation of the new facade of the Cathedral. And finally, in 1871 was approved by the architect Emilio de Fabris, completed the work in 1887. The facade that we see today is very different from all previous versions. It is made using the same type of marble but in different colors: white - from the quarries of Carrara, green from Prato and pink from Maremma.

Above the portals are presented in the tympanum scenes from the life of the virgin Mary. The gable of the Central portal represents the virgin and child in glory. The connecting element between the side and Central Windows sockets is a frieze with the statues of the Apostles and the virgin Mary. At the top of a series of busts of artists rises the tympanum with a bas-relief depicting the Heavenly Father.

The interior of the Cathedral, executed in accordance with the architectural canons of the Italian Gothic style, it strikes with the length of the vertical and horizontal space. For its size (length - 153 meters; the width in the area of the nave is 38 meters and the area of the transept is 90 metres away), the Cathedral is the fourth largest in the world. The pylons are decorated with pilasters, supporting a myriad of intersecting pointed arches and vaults of the naves. At the top there is a gallery, leaning on the console. In depth offers the main altar, the work of Bachchio Bandinelli, surrounded by three apses, or departments, divided in turn into five compartments. Floors 1526-1660 years of colorful marble architects, Bachchio and Giuliano d'agnolo and Francesco da Sangallo, and other masters.

In the left nave it is necessary to emphasize two fresco paintings of the equestrian statues of condottieri Giovanni Acuto and niccolò da Tolentino. First written in 1436 by Paolo Uccello and the second in 1456 by Andrea del Castagno.