/ / Lateran Palace: photos, description (Palazzo Laterano)

Lateran Palace: photos, description (Palazzo Laterano)

Lateran Palace — the former Apostolic Palace, historic building Dating back to the Roman Empire and later the main papal residence. Located near the Basilica San Giovanni in Laterano, the Cathedral of Rome, the Lateran Palace is now occupied by Historic Vatican Museum, which presents the history of the Papal States. Here also are the offices of the Roman diocese and apartments, vicar General of Rome, papal vicar for the conduct of the Affairs of the diocese. Until 1970, the year the Palace also kept a collection of the Lateran Museum, which are now part of the Vatican museums.

The spot on which stands the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano, in the era of the Roman Empire was occupied by domusa (mansion house of the same genus) of the family of Laterani, whose members have served several emperors. One of the members of the family, Plateaus of Lateranus became known that Nero accused him of conspiracy against the Emperor. The prosecution resulted in the fact that the whole property of Lateranus were confiscated and distributed. In the 4th century Domus of Lateran was transferred to the Bishop of Rome, and the Basilica was converted and extended, eventually becoming the Cathedral of Rome and received the name of Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano.

In the 10th century, the house and the Basilica was restored after the terrible fire, and later richly decorated on the orders of Pope innocent III. Near the buildings was erected the Lateran obelisk with Egyptian origin. Reaching a height of 45.7 m, the obelisk, and today is the highest in Rome and the largest standing ancient Egyptian obelisk in the world (weighing about 230 tons).

The Lateran Palace had lost his exalted position after the Pope was expelled from Rome and for several decades had settled in Avignon (the so-called Babylonian captivity of popes). In 1307 and 1361, respectively, the Palace was subjected to devastating fires, and, despite the fact that his recovery was allocated a huge amount, it never regained its former greatness. After the return of the papal court from Avignon, residence of the Pope at first was the Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere, then at Santa Maria Maggiore. Pope Sixtus V, more inclined to the rational planning of the city, than to the preservation of ancient buildings, in 1586, the year ordered to demolish what is left of the ancient Lateran Palace, and to erect in its place a smaller building. In 1589, the year the architect Domenico Fontana carried out his orders. From the ancient Palace remained only three elements - the Holy staircase, the chapel of Sancta sanctorum and the triclinium (feast hall) Pope Leo III. In this room you can see some of the ancient mosaics.

At the end of the 17th century Pope innocent XII was organized in the part of the Lateran Palace of the orphanage, who worked at a small silk factory. In the 19th century in Vdara was a Museum of religious art and pagan culture. And in 1925, the year it was added to the ethnographic Museum, the collection of which has been collected by the missionaries. Here, in 1929, the year was signed the Lateran agreements — the system of treaties governing relations between the Papal see and the Italian government. Later collections of the Lateran Museum was transferred to the Vatican, and the Palace became home to the Historical Vatican Museum, opened in 1991-m to year.