/ / Matera: photo description (Matera)

Matera: photo description (Matera)

Matera is one of the most famous Italian towns, located in the Basilicata region perpendicular to a small gorge. These areas were inhabited by man during the Paleolithic, and the city was allegedly founded by the Romans in the 3rd century BC under the name of Mateola. In 664, the year the Mother was captured by the Lombards and made it part of the Duchy of Benevento. In the 7-8 th centuries the surrounding caves were inhabited by monks Benedictine monks and followers of the Greek Orthodox Church. In the following centuries in these lands was unfolding a fierce battle between Saracens, Byzantines and the German emperors, and hardened repeatedly subjected to destruction. After the 11th century in Apulia was occupied by the Normans, the town came under their power. Only in the 15th century Matera became the possession of the Aragonese dynasty, and later it was even the capital of Basilicata. In 1806, the year of the Metropolitan's title was transferred to Potenza, and in 1927, the year of Matera became the administrative center of the homonymous province. Interestingly, in 1943 year, the first inhabitants of Matera in Italy rebelled against the Nazi-German occupation.

Worldwide Matera is famous for its "Sassi", the ancient dwellings, carved into the rocks. These Sassi are considered to be one of the first human settlements on the territory of the Apennine Peninsula. Many of the Sassi are the usual caverns, and the streets in some part of the "stone city" is located directly on the roofs of houses. In the 1950-ies, the Italian government forcibly resettled the inhabitants of the Sassi to the modern city, but in recent decades, some families have returned. Today Matera can be considered the only place in the world where people live in the same houses as their ancestors of about 9 thousand years ago. A Sassi now turned into luxury hotels and restaurants, and the entire complex in 1993, the year was included in the UNESCO world Cultural Heritage site by UNESCO - the first in the South of Italy.

In addition to the Sassi in Matera there are many religious buildings, including carved in the rock of the Church, which is considered one of the most interesting local attractions. Important monument is the Cathedral of Santa Maria della Bruna, built in the 13th century in Apulian-Romanesque style. Other noteworthy churches of San Pietro Caveoso and San Pietro Barisano. Also worth seeing is the unfinished castle of Castello Tramontano beginning of the 16th century. In Matera there is the Archaeological Museum, the Museum of modern art, the Medieval Museum, the Museum of peasant civilization and the Museum of modern sculpture.