/ / The Fort of fenestrelle: photo description (Forte di Fenestrelle)

The Fort of fenestrelle: photo description (Forte di Fenestrelle)

Fenestrelle Fort is an ancient fortress, towering over the eponymous town in the territory of the Val di Susa in Piedmont. It is the largest in Europe of the Alpine fortress - it is located on the square at 1,300,000 sq. m. the Fort was built by the French in 1694, the year the architect Vauban, and between 1728 and 1850, for years, was expanded and fortified by the Italians. It stands at an altitude of 1100-1800 meters above sea level and guards the road to Turin via the Chisone valley. In 1709, the year after the defeat of the French troops, the Fort was purchased by the Duchy of Savoy, which later emerged as the Kingdom of Sardinia.

The history of the fenestrelle Fort is very interesting. In 1694, the year the French General de Catina received permission for the construction of the fortress Mutan in the valley Chisone by the famous military engineer Sebastian Le Prestre de Vauban. However, in August 1708, the year the fortress was besieged by the army of Savoy, under the leadership of Victor Amadeus II - the French held out within just 15 days. In 1713, the year under the Treaty of Utrecht France officially handed over the Fort, called Blackbox, of Savoy, who immediately ordered to strengthen the structure for his best defense. All the fortifications were connected by a 3km long wall, and interior stairs with 3996 steps.

The French have for some time used the Fort of fenestrelle as a prison - among the famous captives was Josef de Master and Bartolomeo Pukka. It also contained the Pierre Picot, who became the prototype of Edmond Dantes, the main character of the novel of Alexander Dumas 'the Count of Monte Cristo". Savoisy was also sent here as political prisoners, Mazzini's supporters and common criminals.

In 1861, the year after the unification of Italy, about 24 thousand people, mostly soldiers, who supported the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, was sent to the Fort of fenestrelle, which, in fact, turned into a concentration camp. Here was a locked supporters of Garibaldi and of the Pope. Most of the prisoners died of hunger and cold.

In 1882, the year the Fort was restored, and after 1887, the year was used as the headquarters of the battalion of fenestrelle Third Alpine regiment. After the Second World war the Fort was abandoned and began to fall into decay, part of it was even demolished by local residents. Only in 1990 year began the implementation of the project on the reconstruction of the Fort of fenestrelle, initiated by a group of volunteers, Progetto San Carlo.