/ / Basilica of San Zeno Maggiore: photo, description Basilica di San Zeno Maggiore)

Basilica of San Zeno Maggiore: photo, description Basilica di San Zeno Maggiore)

Basilica of San Zeno Maggiore - one of the most beautiful Romanesque churches of Verona, built on the burial place of the patron Saint Zinon Vereyskogo, the former is also the first local Bishop.

Zinon died in the late 4th century, and several decades later over his grave by order of the Emperor Theodoric was built a small Church. It lasted for nearly four centuries, until in the year 807 were not destroyed, and in its place appeared a new temple, in which were placed the relics of St. Zeno. This Church stood still less in the early 10th century during the Hungarian invasion it was almost completely destroyed, and the relics of the Saint was moved to the Cathedral. There in 921, was returned to the crypt, the only surviving structure of the Church. The construction of the current Basilica was completed in the second half of the 10th century by Emperor Otto the Great, and in the 11th century was built the bell tower. Despite the fact that the building was severely damaged in the earthquake of 1117, 1138 year it was restored. In the late 14th century there were carried out regular repair work - were replaced roof, created the ceiling of the Central nave and apse built in the Gothic style. Then for a long time the temple was abandoned, and in the beginning of 1800-ies was in poor condition. Its full restoration was completed only in 1993.

The current building of Basilica, built from local volcanic tuff with rare marble inclusions that are decorated with bas-reliefs on the theme of judgment. The author of these bas-reliefs, which today, unfortunately, are hardly distinguishable, - the sculptor Piloto. He also created and round window-outlet in the center of the facade, called the "Wheel of fortune". The entrance to tserkvei is decorated with a Gothic portal built in the 12th century master Nicolo, who also worked on the portal of the Cathedral of Verona. The columns of the portico support the figures of lions that tear prey, and the portico is decorated with sculptures of St. John the Evangelist, John the Baptist and images of the 12 months of the year. Here you can see the image of St. Zeno, surrounded by Hiking and horseback warriors. On either side of the main entrance of the 4 tiers are 16 bas-reliefs, stories of the old and New Testaments, as well as depicting a medieval jousting scene. The gates of the Basilica is lined with bronze panels with biblical scenes, some of them are 900 years old!

The interior of the temple is striking in its luxury: here you can see a 12th century baptismal font carved from a single piece of marble, carved stone altar, frescoes of the 13th-15th centuries and other works of art, including the famous triptych of Andrea Mantegna's "Madonna on the throne with angels and saints." In one of the naves is a huge porphyry bowl discovered during excavations of the Roman baths. And in the crypt the crystal cancer relics of St. Zinon.

Near the Basilica is a 12th century cloister, the galleries of which are composed of numerous double columns with arches. Here you can see several medieval gravestones, including the gravestone of one of the members of the genus Scaligero created in 1313. A little further stands the Church of San Procolo, in which the relics of the fourth Bishop of Verona, and St. Proclus. It was built in the 6th and 7th centuries, however, completely redone after the earthquake of 1117. Finally, close to Basilica of San Zeno are the ruins of a small monastery, built in the 9th century and destroyed during the Napoleonic wars. Remained only a huge brick tower and clouatre.