/ / Sforza castle: photos, description (Castello Sforzesco)

Sforza castle: photos, description (Castello Sforzesco)

Sforza castle is a castle in Milan, built in the 15th century by order of Duke Francesco Sforza on the ruins of the Fort of the 14th century. Later renovated and enlarged in the 16th and 17th centuries the castle was one of the biggest citadels of Europe. In 1891-1905, respectively, it was significantly rebuilt following the project of Luke Beltrami, and today it houses several city museums.

The first castle on this place was built in the late 14th century and was known as Castello di Porta Giova ' (or Port Zubia). In the future, the rulers of the genus Visconti repeatedly extended the castle until, until he turned into a structure of rectangular shape with four towers at the corners and seven-meter thickness of walls. In those years, the fortification served as the main residence of the Visconti, but was destroyed in 1447, the year during the short rule of the Golden Pinacoteca Ambrosiana Republic.

In 1450, the year Francesco Sforza started the reconstruction of the castle to turn it into his residence. To work on the design of the Central tower he hired sculptor and architect filarete and to this day, the tower bears his name, Torre del filarete. The scenery work by local artists. In 1476, the year, during the reign of the Duchess Bona of Savoy, was built another tower, which received her name.

At the end of the 15th century, Ludovico Sforza, who became Duke of Milan, called numerous artists to decorate the castle - among them was Leonardo da Vinci who has painted a few rooms with frescoes, Zenale Bernardino, Bernardino Butanone, Bramante, who worked in the rooms and Hall del Tesoro della Points. Later, however, the Castello Sforzesco has been subjected several times to attacks from Italian, French and German troops, which could not affect its appearance. In 1521, the year when the castle was used as an Armory, the Torre del filarete was blown up, and only later, with the accession of Milan Francesco II Sforza, the entire castle was restored. In 1550, the year work began on giving Costello his modern hexagonal star shape. Then thereto was added 12 bastions. The external fortifications reached 3 km in length and covers an area of almost 26 hectares.

A large part of the outer fortifications were destroyed during the reign of Napoleon during the years of the Cisalpine Republic, and around the castle, the side that was facing the town erected a semi-circular Piazza Castello. On the opposite side lies the Piazza d Armi. After the unification of Italy, Sforzesco castle lost its military status, and was transferred to the city, and its territory was partitioned, one of the biggest Park of Milan, Parco Sempione. Another reconstruction of the castle was undertaken in the 20th century, as the structure was badly damaged during the bombing of Milan during the Second World war.

Today, the Sforza castle hosts several city museums, the Pinacoteca with the works of Andrea Mantegna, Canaletto, Tiepolo, Vincenzo Foppa, Tiziano and Tintoretto Vecellio; Museum of ancient art sculpture, Michelangelo; the Museum of musical instruments; the Egyptian Museum; the prehistoric collection of the Archaeological Museum of Milan; a collection of works of applied art; a collection of prints Achille Bertarelli and the Museum of antique furniture and wooden sculpture.