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Dinaburg castle

According to historical Chronicles, the Dinaburg castle was founded in 1275 the master of the Livonian order Ernst von Ratzeburg. Behind the castle were numerous battles, and he was in the hands of the Russians, the Lithuanians, the Polish troops. In 1656году Dinaburgsky fortress was captured by Russian forces, but in four years, according to the Oliwa Treaty, the city became the property of Poland. The walls of the fortress was gradually dismantled for the construction of new fortifications.

In 1772, Dinaburg became part of Russia, which is to protect the South-Western side of Petersburg, started to build a castle on the banks of the Daugava river. The project was attended by Russian architect V. P. Stasov. New fortifications were built over 20 years. The fortress in the form in which we see it today, is the fourth in the history of Daugavpils.

The fortress was started in 1810. The stones for the construction of shafts were brought from the island of Saaremaa. As a result, the height of the constructed shaft has reached 11 meters, along them ditch was dug, the depth of which reached up to 9 meters. The ditch was filled with water. The work was done quickly and efficiently. In the spring of 1812, even though that was only half of the work, the king recognized the Dinaburg fortress of the first class.

In the summer of 1812, Napoleon's troops approached the Dinaburg fortress, and for three days tried to grab her. However, despite the fact that the number of invaders outnumbered Russian defenders of the fortress ten times to take the Fort by storm failed. In the second half of July, the defenders had to leave the fortress, in connection with the receipt of the order to retreat. The result of Dinaburg fortress was occupied without fighting by the troops of General rikord, who ordered to destroy the buildings and began to demolish the fortifications.

In 1813 the construction of the fortress was again renewed. Prior to joining fortress troops, the construction work was done by prisoners, peasants, day laborers, and over 2,000 French prisoners. Many of them died from diseases and hard labor. A lot of damage built strongholds caused floods in 1816 and 1829, respectively In the period from 1816 to 1830 on the territory of the fortress were built barracks. Houses. The gates etc.

Dimensions built Dinaburg fortress made it one of the largest and most powerful of the time. In 1819, the test was performed on the strength of the wall of the main shaft. For this, a distance of 140 meters of large caliber were produced 14 shots in the same place. Wall passed the test, damage was purely external in nature.

The fortress was provided with a fortified gate in the amount of 4 pieces. Above them hung the icons, which at night was illuminated with lanterns. In Dinaburg fortress was often stopped members of the Imperial family. So. Nicholas I himself five years has been here 13 times.

The construction of the hospital in the fortress was completed in 1827. It was designed for 500 people. For heating and ventilation in this unique way used the hollow walls of the building. A useful structure has been built a dam, erected between the fortress and the river Daugava. Six-kilometer dam not once rescued Dinaburg from flooding.

Improvement and construction of the fortress took place for decades. So Nicholas I ironically remarked: "Dinaburg fortress built in front of me for 31 years. I wish it was finished in my lifetime. But it is unlikely I will live to see it." And he was not wrong. The fortress was built over 27 years. Only in 1878, the creation of Dinaburg defensive complex was finally completed.

Dinaburg fortress was not only a defensive construction. But a place of detention for political prisoners. So, after the December uprising in 1825, it was delivered by V. K. Kuchelbecker, who was a friend of Pushkin. He was sentenced to the death penalty, which was commuted to life imprisonment. Later, he served his sentence another prisoner - N..Morozov - one of the participants in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II.

By the end of the 19th century Dinaburg fortress, which at that time was called the Dvina, lost its defensive significance and received a category a fortress-warehouse. There were workshops for the manufacture and storage of gunpowder. Shells and sewed military garments.

In 1920, the fortress was renamed to Daugavpils. During the Second World war the fortress was converted by German troops in a huge concentration camp.

Since 1947, there was the Daugavpils Higher military aviation school (dwai). The military gradually brought the territory of the fortress in order, there was equipped with volleyball and basketball courts, gymnastic halls. In addition, work was carried out on landscaping.

In subsequent years, has been featured in a variety of activities. So in 1993, it was observed its 160th anniversary. In 2001, was held a festival of vintage cars, as well as the competition on the Cycling trial.